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Paradigm shift
Sazh enacting a Paradigm Shift.
OavatosDKAdded by OavatosDK
Each party member is assigned an offensive, defensive, or healing role. Executing a Paradigm Shift will allow the player to change each character's role. Using different paradigms for different situations is key to winning these real-time battles. Quick thinking and smart tactics keep the battles intense and enjoyable.
—UK XIII-2 Official Website

A Paradigm (パラダイム, Paradaimu?), also known as an Optima (オプティマ, Oputima?), is a combination of two to three roles in Final Fantasy XIII and Final Fantasy XIII-2. The player can preset up to a maximum of six paradigms when outside battle. During battle the player can freely switch between the preset paradigms using the Playstation-Button-L1/XboxButton-LB button, also known as a Paradigm Shift (パラダイムシフト, Paradaimu Shifuto?) or an Optima Change (オプティマチェンジ, Oputima Chenji?). Setting paradigms and performing paradigm shift at optimal times during battle is the core of formulating winning strategies.

In Final Fantasy XIII-2, suffixes of paradigm names may change according to the Paradigm Tune player has selected for each paradigm. The player has only two main characters, but once the Paradigm Pack option unlocks the player can include a third party member from their roster of captured monsters.

Shifting paradigms 1,000 times in Final Fantasy XIII-2 earns the player the "Strategist" achievement/trophy.


Ffxiii changing paradigm
The Paradigm Shift menu in battle.
Paradigm Deck
The Paradigm Menu.

Roles (ロール, Rōru?) are a gameplay element unique to Final Fantasy XIII. The system is akin to past Final Fantasy job systems, however major changes have been made so that each role resembles a mix of different jobs. Monster allies in Final Fantasy XIII-2 have only one role each, and thus when paradigm shifting with monsters in the party the monster itself changes to another monster whose role corresponds with the chosen paradigm.

Names have been changed between the English and the Japanese releases:

Lightning also has six additional roles in her DLC episode of Final Fantasy XIII-2:

  • Paladin (PLD) / Attack Paladin (ATK-PLD), a role similar to Commando.
  • Mage (MGE) / Blast Wizard (BLA-WIZ), a role similar to Ravager that uses lightning-attribute magic attacks.
  • Shaman (SHA) / Blast Shaman (BLA-SHM), a role similar to Ravager that uses wind-attribute physical attacks.
  • Knight (KNT) / Defense Knight (DEF-KNT), a role similar to Sentinel.
  • Conjurer (CNJ) / Enhance Adept (ENH-ADP), a role similar to Synergist.
  • Sorcerer (SRC) / Jamming Witch (JAM-WTC), a role similar to Saboteur.

Setting each role to a character is made by default, although after a point, the player can freely switch between roles for each character outside of battle.

The localization team was asked to help with the naming of the roles and the team intended to use different names in Japan and the US/EU from the start. The English translators brainstormed and proposed both sets. For the Japanese version, they needed English words that sounded cool when rendered into Japanese, and would be understood by non-English-speaking Japanese players. For the localized version, the team's focus was on creating names that would have a more sci-fi feel to a native speaker's ear, and also abbreviate to three letters in a way that looked natural and made the short forms quickly and easily distinguishable from one another.[1]

Paradigm ShiftEdit

See also: Command Synergy Battle
FF13-2-paradigm shift
Paradigm Shift in Final Fantasy XIII-2.
TheMoonclawAdded by TheMoonclaw

The ATB gauge continues to increase during a Paradigm Shift. If the player shifts in the middle of an action, any unused ATB gauge is saved as if the player had simply cancelled the action. Shifting paradigm refills everyone's ATB gauge. There is a 12 second cooldown time for this effect after each time it activates. If the player shifts less than 12 seconds after this effect last activated, the gauge is not refilled at the end of the shift. The computer-controlled characters have their commands automatically selected immediately following the shift.

During the Paradigm Shift animation commands cannot be input or carried out, but during the animation the ATB gauges of both the player party and the enemies continues to fill. The two computer-controlled allies can act again sooner than the leader, as the leader must wait until all characters' animations are finished before acting.

In Final Fantasy XIII, the first Paradigm Shift in each battle has a longer animation, but it can be bypassed by only shifting during an animation, which cannot be cancelled by the Paradigm Shift.

  1. During an Attack command special animation (gunshot for Lightning, rifle shot for Sazh, three-sectioned staff bows for Fang).
  2. While being in the air, either launched by an enemy or attacking a launched enemy.
  3. While using a character's Full ATB Skill.

Circumventing the long animation will make the next shift animation the long animation.

Final Fantasy XIII-2 removes the long animation from the initial shift to reduce time spent shifting between various paradigms. Additionally, since the third space in the party is filled by Paradigm Pack monsters with differing HP levels, the HP percentage remains constant between monster companions when switching. For example, a monster at critical hit points will transfer its critical status to the monster switching in, and a KO'd monster will remain KO'd. However, since only the percentage remains the same, the monster ally's hit points can potentially increase or decrease dramatically when the role is switched.


With six roles and three maximum playable party members, it is possible to set up to 83 paradigms, sorted in the tables below by the number of contributing party members. The names for these paradigms remain the same from Final Fantasy XIII to Final Fantasy XIII-2.

Names shown in brackets are direct translations from Japanese.


Name Role Description
Commando Attacks enemies with the goal of dealing as much damage as possible.
Ravager Attacks enemies with the aim of quickly building chains.
Sentinel Draws and defends against the attacks of enemies.
Saboteur Focuses on weakening opponents, debilitating them when overwhelmed.
Synergist Focuses on augmenting offense and defense, defending when overwhelmed.
Medic Concentrates on healing and recovery.


Name Role 1 Role 2 Description
Double Trouble
(Double Attacker)
Commando Commando Each COM attacks its own target.
Slash & Burn
(Attack & Blast)
Commando Ravager COM and RAV combine their attacks to take down one enemy at a time.
(Attack & Defense)
Commando Sentinel SEN focuses on drawing enemy aggression while COM attacks.
Divide & Conquer
(Attack & Jamming)
Commando Saboteur SAB debilitates enemies and COM attacks them.
(Attack & Enhanced)
Commando Synergist COM attacks enemies, augmented by SYN's enhancements.
War & Peace
(Attack & Heal)
Commando Medic COM attacks enemies while MED concentrates on healing.
(Double Blaster)
Ravager Ravager Both RAVs concentrate their attacks on the same target.
Arcane Defense
(Blast & Defense)
Ravager Sentinel SEN draws enemy aggression while RAV attacks.
(Blast & Jamming)
Ravager Saboteur RAV attacks while SAB attempts to weaken enemies.
(Blast & Enhanced)
Ravager Synergist RAV attacks enemies, augmented by SYN's enhancements.
Yin & Yang
(Blast & Heal)
Ravager Medic MED heals while RAV attacks enemies.
Twin Shields
(Double Defender)
Sentinel Sentinel Both SENs defend against enemy attacks.
Stumbling Block
(Defense & Jamming)
Sentinel Saboteur SEN protects SAB, who attempts to weaken enemies.
Building Block
(Defense & Enhance)
Sentinel Synergist SEN protects SYN, who focuses on strengthening the party.
(Defense & Heal)
Sentinel Medic SEN protects MED, who concentrates on healing.
(Double Jammer)
Saboteur Saboteur Both SABs attempt to quickly weaken and debilitate enemies.
Tide Turner
(Jamming & Enhance)
Saboteur Synergist SAB weakens opponents while SYN focuses on strengthening the party.
Sap & Salve
(Jamming & Heal)
Saboteur Medic SAB weakens opponents while MED handles healing.
(Double Enhancer)
Synergist Synergist Both SYNs focus on quickly strengthening the party.
(Enhance & Heal)
Synergist Medic MED handles healing while SYN focuses on strengthening the party.
Double Dose
(Double Healer)
Medic Medic Both MEDs concentrate on healing.


Name Role 1 Role 2 Role 3 Description
Cerberus Commando Commando Commando Each COM attacks its own target. Effective for picking off weaker enemies.
Commando Commando Ravager RAV and one COM attack a common target while other COM attacks its own.
Offensive Screen
(Legion of Steel)
Commando Commando Sentinel SEN defends against dangerous attacks while COMs focus on dealing damage.
Commando Commando Saboteur COMs attack separate targets while SAB weakens dangerous opponents.
Strike Team
(Leap of Two Heroes)
Commando Commando Synergist COMs attack separate targets while SYN supports with enhancements.
Tireless Charge
(Unshakable Conquerors)
Commando Commando Medic COMs attack separate targets while MED supports with healing.
Relentless Assault
(Rush Assault)
Commando Ravager Ravager COM and RAVs focus on taking down one target at a time.
Delta Attack Commando Ravager Sentinel SEN draws enemy aggression while COM and RAV attack a common target.
(Warring Demons of Destruction)
Commando Ravager Saboteur COM and RAV combine their attacks while SAB attempts to weaken enemies.
(Storming Dragon-Tiger)
Commando Ravager Synergist COM and RAV coordinate attacks, augmented by SYN's enhancements.
(Brave Paean)
Commando Ravager Medic COM and RAV coordinate attacks while MED supports with healing.
Guarded Assault
Commando Sentinel Sentinel SENs defend while the lone COM attacks. Limited in effectiveness.
Dirty Fighting
Commando Sentinel Saboteur COM attacks enemies weakened by SAB while SEN defends against them.
Strategic Warfare
(Rousing Challenger)
Commando Sentinel Synergist COM attacks and SEN defends while SYN strengthens them.
(Determination to Victory)
Commando Sentinel Medic MED heals and SEN defends while COM attacks enemies.
(Calamity Circus)
Commando Saboteur Saboteur COM attacks while SABs attempt to weaken dangerous enemies.
(Leader's Counterattack)
Commando Saboteur Synergist COM, augmented by SYN's enhancements, attacks enemies weakened by SAB.
Scouting Party
(Blessing to the Hunters)
Commando Saboteur Medic SAB weakens opponents while COM attacks them and MED heals the party.
All for One
(The Lionheart King)
Commando Synergist Synergist SYNs strengthen COM, who picks off weaker enemies in the meantime.
Hero's Charge
(Indomitable Warrior)
Commando Synergist Medic COM dispatches targets with healing and support from MED and SYN.
(Patriotic Ambitions)
Commando Medic Medic Both MEDs focus on healing while lone COM attacks enemies.
Tri-Disaster Ravager Ravager Ravager All three RAVs combine their attacks, attempting to quickly fill chain gauges.
Mystic Tower
Ravager Ravager Sentinel RAVs combine their attacks while SEN protects them from dangerous enemies.
Smart Bomb
Ravager Ravager Saboteur RAVs combine their attacks while SAB weakens dangerous opponents.
(Mage Parade)
Ravager Ravager Synergist RAVs coordinate their attacks, augmented by SYN's enhancements.
(Spirits' Oratorio)
Ravager Ravager Medic MED heals while RAVs combine their attacks against a common target.
Patient Probing
Ravager Sentinel Sentinel SENs defend while the lone RAV attacks. Limited in effectiveness.
Matador Ravager Sentinel Saboteur RAV attacks enemies weakened by SAB while SEN defends against them.
Riot Shield
(March of The Intercept)
Ravager Sentinel Synergist SEN defends while RAV attacks, augmented by SYN's enhancements.
(Hymn of Defense)
Ravager Sentinel Medic SEN draws enemy aggression while MED heals and RAV attacks.
(Sense of The Turbulent Storm)
Ravager Saboteur Saboteur RAV attacks enemies heavily weakened by two SABs
(Strategical Rhapsody)
Ravager Saboteur Synergist RAV attacks while SAB weakens enemies and SYN strengthens the party.
Ravager Saboteur Medic SAB weakens opponents while RAV attacks and MED heals.
(Unparalleled Force)
Ravager Synergist Synergist RAV attacks enemies, heavily augmented by two SYNs.
Ravager Synergist Medic MED heals while RAV attacks enemies, augmented by SYN's enhancements.
Perpetual Magic
(Majin of Immortality)
Ravager Medic Medic RAV attacks enemies while MEDs rapidly heal the party.
(Great Wall)
Sentinel Sentinel Sentinel All three SENs tighten their defenses. Effective for withstanding area attacks.
Sentinel Sentinel Saboteur SENs protect SAB, who attempts to weaken enemies. Limited in effectiveness.
(Twin Iron Cliff)
Sentinel Sentinel Synergist Both SENs defend while SYN strengthens the party. Limited in effectiveness.
(Impregnable Fortress)
Sentinel Sentinel Medic Both SENs defend while MED heals the party. Limited in effectiveness.
(Tactical Avenger)
Sentinel Saboteur Saboteur SEN protects SABs while they weaken dangerous enemies.
(Beacon of Counterattack)
Sentinel Saboteur Synergist SEN defends while SAB weakens opponents and SYN strengthens the party.
Sentinel Saboteur Medic MED heals and SEN defends while SAB attempts to weaken enemies.
Prudent Planning
(Mighty Guard)
Sentinel Synergist Synergist SEN protects two SYNs while they strengthen the party.
(Guardian of The Patient)
Sentinel Synergist Medic SEN defends while MED heals and SYN focuses on strengthening the party.
Combat Clinic
Sentinel Medic Medic SEN protects two MEDs while they concentrate on rapid healing.
Saboteur Saboteur Saboteur SABs attempt to quickly weaken and debilitate even resistant enemies.
(Merciless Disaster)
Saboteur Saboteur Synergist SABs attempt to weaken enemies while SYN supports with enhancements.
Safe Subversion
(Chorus of The Underworld)
Saboteur Saboteur Medic SABs attempt to weaken enemies while MED supports with healing.
Saboteur Synergist Synergist SYNs strengthen the party while SAB attempts to weaken enemies.
Evened Odds
(Trinity Union)
Saboteur Synergist Medic MED heals while SYN strengthens allies and SAB weakens enemies.
(Tenacious Strategy)
Saboteur Medic Medic MEDs concentrate on healing while SAB attempts to weaken enemies.
Rapid Growth
Synergist Synergist Synergist All three SYNs focus on strengthen the party to take on powerful enemies.
(Fruitful Showers of Blessing)
Synergist Synergist Medic MED heals while SYNs focus on strengthening the party.
(White Wind)
Synergist Medic Medic Both MEDs concentrate on healing while SYN strengthens the party.
Medic Medic Medic MEDs concentrate on healing, quickly removing numerous status ailments.


XIII-2 Paradigm Customize Menu
Paradigm menu in Final Fantasy XIII-2.
MonterossaAdded by Monterossa

Final Fantasy XIII-2 extends on the paradigms' customizability, letting the player tune them in the menu. Tuned paradigms get the suffix of -X or -W.

Through use of Paradigm Tuning, the other party members' AI can be changed out of battle in the paradigm menu with different settings for various situations. These are: Normal, which automatically adapts to the situation; Wide (lit. "Spread"), which makes each party member target a different enemy (or ally, when healing and buffing); and Cross (lit. "Concentrate"), which makes everyone act on a single target. Certain Paradigm Tunes change the names of paradigms to have a letter at the end, for example "Aggression-X".

Suffix -X is added to "Cross" tune, meaning the paradigm will concentrate on a single enemy unit. Suffix -W is added to "Wide" tune, meaning the paradigm will spread its attacks on all enemies. Paradigms with no suffixes will follow their "original" tunes. When a paradigm is set to a Cross tune, Serah will only use the sword form of her weapon regardless of distance, and while one is set to Wide, she will only use her bow form. Standard tuning will have her switch according to distance.

Creation and DevelopmentEdit

E3 -2009-FFXIII-Paradigms
Screenshot shows GLA assigned to Lightning, AUG to Snow, and TAC to Vanille.
KaimiAdded by Kaimi

When developing for the paradigm system the development team would have wanted the characters' appearance to change for each role, but this wasn't possible due to limited system resources. With only a single playable character in Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, this became possible with the garb system.[2]

In an advertisement for E3 2009, three of six roles have different names and abbreviations: Gladiator (GLA) for Commando (COM), Augmenter (AUG) for Synergist (SYN), and Tactician (TAC) for Saboteur (SAB) in their respective colors. Paradigm naming had also a different pattern.

Paradigm shift and paradigm roles are not available in the Final Fantasy XIII demo; instead, the player queues up all available abilities, mixing different types to the same command queue.

Other AppearancesEdit

Dissidia 012 Final FantasyEdit

Dissidia012 - Paradigm Shift
Lightning shifting Paradigms.

Lightning's battle style is an adapted form of the Paradigm System. By pressing Dissidia R Button and Dissidia L Button during battle, Lightning can change between the Commando, Ravager, and Medic Paradigms, signified by the name of the new Paradigm being displayed and a visual effect engulfing Lightning briefly. Each Paradigm has its own set of Bravery attacks, with HP attacks being shared across all three, and allow Lightning to quickly change up her fighting style. Commando focuses on physical attacks, Ravager focuses on magic attacks, and Medic allows Lightning to cast healing spells to increase her Bravery without attacking.



A paradigm is a concept, thought pattern or a point of view depending on one's experience. A paradigm shift describes a fundamental change in ideology, usually in the field of science. For example, Darwin's theory of evolution replacing Lamarck's theories and creationism is a paradigm shift.

The Japanese name of Rapid Growth, Trismegistos, alludes to Hermes Trismegistus.

The Japanese name of Salvation, Asclepius, is the name of the Greek god of medicine/healing in Greek mythology, referring to the paradigm's unrivaled healing potency.

Some of the paradigms in both the English and Japanese versions refer to various terms in the series: Delta Attack (both) refers to the signature attack of Magus Sisters, Tri-disaster (both) refers to an ability of the same name that deals damage of multiple elements, Dualcasting (EN) to the ability to cast two magic spells at once, Mighty Guard (JP) to magic that grants positive status effects on the target, and White Wind (JP) to a healing spell which removes negative status effects as well.


  • The only time the player can see Twin Shields, Stumbling Block, Havoc, or Rally without using a cheating device in Final Fantasy XIII is the battle against Hecatoncheir. Stumbling Block is put into the Paradigm Deck by default, but to see the other three, the player needs to get a Game Over on the fight or Retry it. Furthermore, Twin Shields requires the player to teach the Sentinel paradigm to Vanille, and Rally requires the player to teach the Synergist role to both Fang and Vanille.
  • A party of Lightning, Fang, and Hope or Vanille can learn every skill from every role (excluding the exclusive Full ATB Skills).
  • According to a Brain Blast! question in Academia, the term "paradigm shift" is used by office workers to refer to reshuffling staff.


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