The following is a list of allusions in Final Fantasy Type-0.
- The classic plot of the series involving four crystals of four nations is used.
- The four Crystals of Orience resemble the elemental crystals of the early series. The Vermilion Bird Crystal represents the Fire Crystal, the White Tiger Crystal represents the Earth Crystal, the Black Tortoise Crystal represents the Water Crystal and the Azure Dragon Crystal represents the Wind Crystal.
- A classic Final Fantasy story arc is that the antagonist's goal is to seize the Crystals of the world; this also happens in Final Fantasy Type-0 with Cid Aulstyne, but the trope is somewhat subverted in that Cid believes the Crystals are enslaving mankind and people need to be freed from their influence.
- Quon Yobatz mentions the term "Final Fantasy" during Tempus Finis, while explaining his theory about Agito being but a fairy tale and just the final fantasy that will keep people from panicking when the time of Finis has come upon them.
- The Kingdom of Concordia is predominantly ruled by women, much like the Kingdom of Troia.
- Kain's Lance and Highwind are spears for Nine, referring to Kain Highwind, the Dragoon from Final Fantasy IV. The romaji pronunciation for Nine's name, Nain (ナイン), also rhymes with that of Kain (カイン), their names in katakana differing by a single character. Nine has Dragoon-like abilities.
- Rubicante, an Eidolon in the Ifrit Class, originates as one of the four Elemental Archfiends.
- The Dominion of Rubrum airship fleet is called the Crimson Wings, likely alluding to the Red Wings airship fleet from Final Fantasy IV.
- Gilgamesh and Enkidu, who originate in Final Fantasy V as antagonists, appear in Final Fantasy Type-0 as the major representatives of the Lorican Alliance.
- Gilgamesh is fought as a boss on the big bridge at the Rubrumite-Militesi border, in the mission "The Clash on Big Bridge". Gilgamesh was fought in the Big Bridge in Final Fantasy V.
- Celestia is known as Shinryu Celestia (シンリュウホシヒメ, Shinryū Hoshihime?) when she transforms into a dragon, as a nod to the original Shinryu.
- Golem originates as a summon in Final Fantasy V.
- Marshal Cid's speech in the opening scene is similar to Emperor Gestahl's speech in Final Fantasy VI where Gestahl said "Soldiers of the Empire! We stand at the dawn of a new age!" while in Final Fantasy Type-0, Cid said "The time has come! Yes, this is the dawn of a new age!"
- In Chapter 3, Class Zero is given a mission to sneak into the empire's magitek laboratory, much like the Returners in Final Fantasy VI, but for a different objective.
- Trey's Grand Delta and Cinque's Payback (Revenge Blast in Japanese) abilities originated as Lores learned by Strago Magus.
- Eight's Explosive Fist (Raging Fist in Japanese) and Phantom Rush abilities originate as Blitz techniques learned by Sabin Rene Figaro. Raging Fist is the first Blitz available to Sabin, while Phantom Rush is the last and most powerful Blitz he can learn.
- The party's airship is named the Setzer, after Setzer Gabbiani, the pilot of the only two civilian airships in Final Fantasy VI. The message that appears when the Setzer is activated for the first time is from "Captain Setzer".
- Three of Ace's weapons (Playing Cards, Reaper's Tarot, and Black Trump) originate as the three card weapons in the gamblers' set exclusive to Setzer.
- Reaper's Tarot shares its Japanese name for Doom Darts/Death Tarot.
- Several of Cater's weapons originate as weapons for various Final Fantasy VII characters:
- Several of King's weapons originate in Final Fantasy VII:
- Outsider, Death Penalty, Peacemaker, and Quicksilver are guns for Vincent. The Quicksilver is King's strongest weapon, but the default or most basic weapon for Vincent.
- Hi-Blow ST is the original Japanese name for Vincent's Supershot ST.
- Hard Breaker, the original Japanese name for Hardedge, originates as a broadsword for Cloud Strife.
- Jack's Tranquillity ability is named Clear Tranquil in Japanese, which is a Limit Break used by Yuffie.
- The Knights of the Round are summoned by Kurasame Susaya in the novel Final Fantasy Type-0: Change the World -The Penultimate Truth-, during which he became a l'Cie.
- The chocobo breeding activity originates from Final Fantasy VII.
- The Kisaragi-class cruisers are the most common dreadnoughts in the dominion. Kisaragi is Yuffie's last name in Final Fantasy VII.
- The protagonists are cadets at a military academy, like cadets who train at Gardens to become SeeDs in Final Fantasy VIII. Both groups are affected by a specific form of memory loss due to the presence of magic. Both groups are made up of youths.
- The main cast of Final Fantasy VIII (bar Rinoa) has a "Matron" whom they look up to. Similarly the cadets of Class Zero (bar Machina and Rem) have "Mother", a synonym for "Matron", to whom they look up to. Both women are associated with magic, Edea being a sorceress, while Arecia Al-Rashia is a powerful archsorceress.
- Diabolos originates as a Guardian Force for SeeDs.
- "Letter to Nazuna" (ナズナへの手紙, Nazuna e no Tegami?) is an item needed to obtain Yu'u's Crystal in the town of Aqvi. Nazna is a moogle part of the Mognet sidequest in Final Fantasy IX.
- After visiting the Valley of Monsters, the phantomist Akane's boyfriend, O'yah, is healed and will accompany her to every location she can be met, saying "Y'know, getting turned into an amphibian helped me realize what I really want in life: marry my girl, have a kid, and run our business—as a family! It'll be like one of those little mom-and-pop shops. I'm O'yah, and she's Akane, so maybe we could call it 'O'yah and Akane's'! ...No? Maybe something with a little more zing, like 'O'aka's'! ...Still no?" O'aka XXIII is a traveling merchant in Final Fantasy X who greets his customers with "Welcome to O'aka's!"
- The Iron Duke originates from Final Fantasy X-2, where it is regarded as the game's best accessory.
- Brynhildr, Seven's strongest weapon, is the name of Sazh Katzroy's Eidolon.
- Tezcatlipoca, Sice's strongest weapon, is a weapon belonging to Hope Estheim.
- The Crystarium system is the character development system in Final Fantasy XIII. Crystarium is the name of the library at Akademeia in Final Fantasy Type-0.
- The player can obtain the achievement An Army of One by completing a mission solo with no reserves. The name alludes to Lightning's special attack, Army of One.
- Rursan Reavers sport large human faces on their chests, a reference to the Cocoon fal'Cie, who also sport human faces on them, most notably Barthandelus. Both the reavers and the Cocoon fal'Cie are the brood of the god Lindzei.
- The theme of defying one's fate and creating a new legacy for one's self is prevalent in Final Fantasy Type-0 as it was in Final Fantasy XIII. When the time of Tempus Finis comes and their superiors are no longer present, Class Zero cadets are told by Arecia Al-Rashia to make an important choice for themselves, forcing them to think independently.
- Like the situation that destroyed Cocoon, the source of conflict in Orience is revealed to be a "divine experiment" by the deities Pulse and Lindzei. Both deities seek to open Etro's gate through different means. Lindzei's method was through the sacrifice of many lives (Tempus Finis; Day of Ragnarok), while Pulse's method was for a select group of souls with strong power (Class Zero; Lightning's party) to be sacrificed.
- Both endings feature a similar sequence of events: the protagonists who became l'Cie (Machina and Rem; Lightning, Snow, Sazh, and Hope) are freed from crystal stasis, by the pardoning of a deity (Arecia, who represents Pulse; Etro). One of their first discoveries upon awakening is that several of their comrades have performed a great sacrifice to ensure the peace of the world (Class Zero's deaths and Vanille and Fang forming Cocoon's crystal pillar).
In Japan, Final Fantasy XIII-2 was released just two months after Final Fantasy Type-0, thus referring to several features in the third Fabula Nova Crystallis title.
- Both titles introduce a moogle named Mog who acts as a supporting guide for the party. Both characters are voiced by Sumire Morohoshi in Japanese and Ariel Winter in English.
- The Japanese name of the Unusual Artifact accessory is (「オーパーツ」, Ōpātsu?), which is the Japanese name for artefacts in Final Fantasy XIII-2.
- In the ending cutscene, Nine throws Mog at Eight out of frustration, like the Moogle Throw feature in Final Fantasy XIII-2.
- The English name of Rubrum's Magic Academy, Akademeia, is used as Academia in Final Fantasy XIII-2, a new capital city run by the Academy in the future.
- In Pandæmonium's Cloister of Premonition, there are many odd-shaped polygonal blocks around the edge of the arena similar in shape to the walkways of Academia 500 AF, perhaps indicating the presence of chaos.
- l'Cie, Foci, and crystal stasis are present in Orience.
- All deities, except for Bhunivelze, have an accessory named after them.
- There are numerous references to Etro's gate:
- Ace's cards have a symbol similar to the Gate on them.
- Cubes sport a symbol similar to the Gate.
- Relic terminals sport a symbol similar to the Gate.
- The cover of Rubicus bears a depiction of the Gate.
- The moogle of Class Third has a depiction of an eye on hir hat.
- The front of the Altocrystarium sports a symbol similar to the Gate due to its relationship to souls, or phantoma.
- When Dr Arecia summons Bahamut-0, the portal he emerges from is in the image of an eye.
- Above the Pandæmonium there is a large fiery sphere around which cogs turn and a mechanism with likeness to Etro's gate.
- Certain trap floors in Pandæmonium that deal damage when stepped on bear the likeness of Etro's gate.
- In the Portal of Destruction area in Pandæmonium, each of the four Crystal-States' insignias in the room have Etro's gate in them.
- The design of the Rursan Arbiter sports many eye-like structures upon it.
- Ignis, an Ifrit Class Eidolon in Final Fantasy Type-0, is a name also seen in the other Fabula Nova Crystallis titles. Ignis is an ability name for Bahamut in Final Fantasy XIII and Chaos Bahamut in Final Fantasy XIII-2, and is a name for a character in Final Fantasy XV, which started as part of the Fabula Nova Crystallis project.
- The peace treaty proposed during the cadets' Operation MA Demolition is called the "Fabula Pact."
- The Dissidia Final Fantasy arrangement of "Battle at the Big Bridge" is used in Final Fantasy Type-0 for battles against Gilgamesh.
- Like the cycles of war in Dissidia, the world of Orience has been destroyed and recreated several times over, with its characters reborn without their previous memories. The respective follow-up titles, Final Fantasy Agito and Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy, feature storylines or "cycles" set prior to the events of their original games.
Allusions to the number zero Edit
Although initially titled Final Fantasy Agito XIII, Final Fantasy Type-0 was renamed in January 2011, less than a year before its release. The reason stated was that the game felt less associated with Final Fantasy XIII. Thus, it contains several references to the numeral zero and the term "Type-0" (零式, Reishiki?) itself.
- The playable characters are part of Class Zero.
- The Eidolon summoned to intervene in the Battle of Judecca is Bahamut ZERO.
- King's Triad Maneuver is named Zero Distance Shot (零距離射撃, Rei-kyori Shageki?).
- Cater's ultimate weapon is named MTek-ZERO (零式魔装銃, Reishiki Masōjū?, lit. Type-0 Magic Gun).
- In the Japanese release, the names of the Quick Draw variations are labeled as "Type-1" (壱型, Ichi-gata?), "Type-2" (弐型, Ni-gata?), and "Type-3" (参型, San-gata?). Only Rem has the variation "Type-0" (零型, Rei-gata?), which allows her to trigger Quick Draw in the quickest way possible. In the English release, the names were changed to be more indicative of what they actually do.
- Tiz represents the number 10 of Class Zero, while Joker represents the "joker" card, a wild card, and hence, the number 0.
- Rem's name, or Remu (「レム」?), is derived from the term reimu (「零無」?), which literally means "not zero."
Allusions to the number thirteen Edit
Final Fantasy Type-0 was originally called Final Fantasy Agito XIII and also contains several references to the number thirteen.
- There are thirteen classes at Akademeia.
- Fog and snow weather conditions raise ice damage by 13% and rain raises lightning damage by 13%. During sandstorms lightning and wind damage is 13% of normal damage, and heavy rains reduce fire and earth damage to 13% as well.
- The game was initially meant to have thirteen playable characters. However, one was left out and two more (Machina and Rem) were added, resulting in 14 playable characters instead.
- Before heading to the Capture of Togoreth Stronghold mission, a legionary in Central Command says that thirteen injured are being flown in on the next airship, and he asks for medics to stand by.
- At the start of The Infiltration of Iscah Class Zero get a COMM from Unit 13.
- A segment of the Escaping the Imperial Capital mission takes place in the A-13 Building. This may also allude to the game originally being named Final Fantasy Agito XIII. The mission's final boss is fought in an arena that has "013" painted on the walls. This could allude to both number zero and number thirteen.
- The background of the Rubicus has thirteen numbered clockwork wheels.
- There are thirteen moogles that make up the Cranberry Knights.
- The clockface at the Akademeia lobby counts up to thirteen, even if the in-game day has 24 hours.
- Machina is said to have passed away at age 67. 6+7=13.
- The Support Personnel are named after members of the development staff, such as Hajime Tabata, Tetsuya Nomura, Yusuke Naora, and several of the Japanese voice actors.
- "Bushido Blade" is one of Jack's katanas, refers to the Bushido Blade series of 3D fighting games developed by Square for the PlayStation.
- Jack's Triad Maneuver, "Helm Divide", has the same Japanese name as an attack used by Riku Replica in the Kingdom Hearts series, "Helm Split".
- The Dominion of Rubrum is represented by the phoenix, a legendary bird that is endlessly reborn from the flames after its death. In Asia, the phoenix is referred to by a few names that include "Suzaku" or "Vermilion Bird". This plays in the cycle of conflict storyline, and Ace's transformation into a phoenix-armored samurai in the HD version's ending.
Asian mythology Edit
- The four nations of Orience and their Crystals are inspired and represented by the animals of the Four Symbols that originated in China and expanded to Japan. They are literally translated in the English localization. The Azure Dragon is known as "Sōryu", compared to the more common name "Seiryū", and the connection between both names is explained in the Kingdom of Concordia's history.
- According to the Rubicus, for idolatry toward the Blue Dragon Crystal and blasphemy upon the consumption of dragons, being the manifestations of its power and benevolent blessings, the Dracobaltians were sentenced to live in the Cursemire of Naraku by three l'Cie. Naraku is the Japanese equivalent of Naraka (Sanskrit: नरक) or Hell in Buddhist mythology, and said to be one of the six realms of the cycle of Samsara. Further highlighting the allusions are the grotesque and demonic appearances of the Dracobaltians, as being born into this existence is said to be the worst of the Four Unhappy/Cursed Births of Buddhism; one born into this realm are said to exist as preta, a being forever cursed with insatiable hunger, frail bodies, and ill health to suffer unimaginable pain, while pitted against the many punishments and horrific designs one's own karma has reaped upon them for this world to exhaust before their passing.
Sumerian mythology Edit
- All previous Lorican l'Cie are named after characters from the Epic of Gilgamesh, as homage to Gilgamesh and Enkidu.
- The first lines of Tempus Finis phase "When nine and nine meet nine..." is a flipped version of "666", the end of the world from the book of Genesis.
- The last lines of the prophecy regarding Tempus Finis and the Agito share similarities with the unveiling of the Four Horsemen in Revelation 6:1.
- Iscah is a town in Final Fantasy Type-0. Iscah is the daughter of Haran and niece of Abraham in the Hebrew Bible. The passage in which Iscah is mentioned is brief and obscure. As a result rabbinical scholars developed theories to explain it, typically adopting the claim that Iscah was an alternate name for Sarah (Sarai), the wife of Abraham, particularly that it denoted her role as a prophetess.
- The name of the Four Champions of Rubrum in Japanese alludes to the Four Heavenly Kings in Buddhism.
Meiji revolution Edit
- The destruction of the Lorican Alliance by Milites Empire draws its conclusion similar to the Battle of Aizu. Despite the Satsuma Rebellion at Japan's farthest reaches ultimately cementing the fall of the samurai, the northern region of Aizu of Tohoku was historically hailed as one of Japan's greatest centers of martial arts, power, and cultural tradition. Upon the Ishin Shishi's penultimate victory through the siege of Edo, Aizu refused to recognize the new rule of the Meiji Government, and headed their own rebellion with other remnants still in allegiance with the Tokugawa Shogunate, which ultimately ended with the capitol castle city of Aizuwakamatsu disastrously razed and many of its citizens perished in the battles that came. Further parallels come from both leaders having survived the fall of their domains; Matsudaira Katamori with Aizu, and Gilgamesh with Lorica.
World War II Edit
- Much of the visual direction is centered on the period which WWII took place in. Video footage comes in monochrome with scratches, signifying that film technology of Orience is that of the real life decade. Architecture shows rustic and outdated designs among anachronistic examples of advanced technology.
- In the last seconds of the title intro, cherry blossoms retain their color among a black and white backdrop. During the days of the early Showa era, cherry blossoms were given the myth of being the souls of the Imperial Japanese who passed on during their service in the war.
- The theme of school children and teenagers to engage in war preparation and military service appears to draw upon many reminiscent experiences regarding youth in the warring era:
- The process of conscription at youth in Rubrum appears to be lifted from the real life practices of Showa era education in Japan where not only the enrollment of children into military schooling was common, everyday students were also instilled with much of the imperialist propaganda of the age, along with being trained in martial arts and military training in the fear that Allied Nations would invade the country.
- Although the United States military saw conscription to maintain its ranks, due to the world's state with war on both sides of the world and the economic disparity in North America at the time, some youths lied about their age to fight in the war.
- Cid Aulstyne's brandishing of a katana draws its reference from the uniforms and standards of Japanese military commanders during WWII, as the carrying of katana signified the loose appropriations of the more dominant aspects of Bushido and Japanese patriotism in the Empire of Japan, despite having relinquished many aspects of tradition in the Meiji era and having adopted modern weapons, such as guns and rifles.
- Cid Aulstyne shaking hands with the King of Concordia resembles the event that Adolf Hitler meets Benito Mussolini for the first time on June 13, 1934 in the city of Venice.
- The sequence where Class Zero makes their stand as Ace drives the flag of Rubrum atop a hill appears to draw inspiration from the famous photo Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima.
- Milites Empire's use of the Ultima Bomb on the Lorican Alliance is similar to that of use of atomic bombs by the United States on Japan.
- The cardinal directions of the Four Symbols appear to refer to the current events of the times in their respective direction of the real world:
- West: The rise of fascism and military dictatorships in Europe, the advancement of greater military technology and power in Europe and the United States.
- North: Mass deaths and military casualties, particularly in Russia on both fronts.
- East: Disputes over the Chinese throne, the takeover and forced annexation of Manchuria by the Empire of Japan.
- South: Mass colonization of southern nations by western powers, particularly India, The Philippines, Africa, and Indochina, and the infamous Nanshinron plan of Imperial Japan.
- The concept of using the suffix Type appears to draw upon the East Asian production model variant identifier suffix 式 shiki or "-Type" that began to saw use in the 1920s in Japanese and Chinese manufacturing, particularly in military industries at the time. With heavy war themes throughout and starting off as Type-0, likely draws upon the reputation of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, or the Mitsubishi Navy Type 0 Carrier Fighter planes used in World War II, known among historians and aircraft aficionados to have been one of the greatest fighter planes built, and to where its reputation in battle helped elevate its shorthand identifier as something synonymous with quality and greatness.
American politics Edit
- After Class Zero liberates Toguagh, the mayor of the town, Issei says: "I have a dream—a dream to make Toguagh the most splendid city in all of Orience!" "I Have a Dream" is a public speech by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1963.
- The setting of Judecca in Chapter 5 refers to the ninth and lowest circle of Hell in the Divine Comedy by Dante in which traitors and fraudsters are punished. The river Cocytus flows in the last circle, and Judecca is reserved for those who committed the worst type of betrayal—to their lords and masters, are punished by being immersed in ice. Satan lies at the center of the circle and in some interpretations, his tears make up the lake in which traitors are buried.
- There is an achievement called The Chocobo Whisperer. The novel The Horse Whisperer is one of the best-selling books of all time, and since its success the term "[animal] whisperer" has been colloquially used to refer to people with exceptional understanding of said species.
- Eight's weapon, Golden Hands (Goldfinger in Japanese), appears to derive its name from the seventh novel and the namesake antagonist of Ian Fleming's famous James Bond series.
- There are some Lovecraftian references in the game. The town of Mi-Go is named after Mi-go ("The Abominable Ones") is a Himalayan nickname for a race of extraterrestrials in the Cthulhu Mythos created by H. P. Lovecraft and others. In Orience, there are also areas called Innsmouth, Arkham and Gotham, although not all areas can be visited; some just appear as names on the map in cutscenes.
- Akane, the cadet waiting in the entrance of Corsi Cave, the Bethnel Caverns, the Black Tortoise Crevasse and the Valley of Monsters, claims that her boyfriend has been turned into a frog and only a maiden's kiss can restore his original appearance, alluding to the fairy tale "The Frog Prince". Maiden's Kiss is also a recurring item in the Final Fantasy series that heals the Toad status.
- During the second free time period of chapter 3, a Class Ninth Cadet at the Crystarium says "Have you run into any fantastic beasts in your travels? You wouldn't have any idea where to find them, would you?" This refers to Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, a 2001 book written by J. K. Rowling (under a fictitious pseudonym) about the magical creatures in the Harry Potter universe.
- Machina's name is Latin for machine and refers to the phrase deus ex machina, "god from the machine", that has evolved to mean a plot device whereby a seemingly unsolvable problem is resolved by the unexpected intervention of a new event, character, ability or object. Machina wields a pair of screw-like rapiers that have gears that rotate up and down the shaft of the sword.
- There is an abundance of clockwork, gears and cog-like designs all around the world of Orience. Cogs generally are part of a greater whole and they fit into a design. Cogs imply cyclicality and repetition of a singular motion. The repeating motif throughout may allude to many things:
- Class Zero's importance as the incarnations of the Agito to open Etro's gate. When they speak with Queen Andoria, she refers to the cadets as "the final cog".
- The seeming artificiality of Orience, forever made to loop in an endless spiral.
- Its greater motif in the arms of Rubrum, significant of harmony and understanding, and in the ways of magic, being able to mesh man's control in tune with the power of nature in equal standing.
- Due to each cycle of Orience being due to Etro's blessing, the mechanism-heavy design features could allude to her power as in Final Fantasy XIII: Etro's gate features many gears and her Eidolons were mechanical in appearance.
- Upon inspecting a door in McTighe the player can get a message: "(Strains of W.A Mogzart's 'Sonatina in Eb' float forth from behind the door...)" This refers to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, a famous composer.
- The Rokol town scoop starts his pitch by saying "What's the word, Vermilion Bird?" This refers to certain songs from the 1960s. "Surfin' Bird" is a song performed by the American surf rock band The Trashmen that is a combination of two R&B hits by The Rivingtons: "Papa-Oom-Mow-Mow" and "The Bird's the Word", which was influenced by Red Prysock's "What's the word? Thunderbird!"
- There is an item called Perfume Set whose description is: "A sampling of massively trendy fragrances including Love Naturally and Eau de Polyrhythm." This refers to the Japanese band Perfume and their songs "Polyrhythm" and "Natural ni Koishite."
Playing cards Edit
- The Class Zero members' code names take after the western playing cards.
TV and cinema Edit
- One of the tasks is called "The Phantoma Menace", referring to Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace.
- A cutscene featuring Carla, Cater, and King in Chapter 8 is titled "The Melancholy of Carla Ayatsugi", referring to the anime series The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya, which featured their Japanese voice actors, Aya Hirano, Minori Chihara, and Tomokazu Sugita, respectively.
Video games Edit
- The idea of the magitek armor Brionac being a mobile mass destruction weapons platform capable of deploying its payload from anywhere throughout the world appears to draw reference from the titular superweapon of the series of the same name, Metal Gear.
- The design of the dialogue window in the game is based on rulers.
- The bell ringing sound effect that plays when the free time period passes by alludes to the bell ringing used in Japanese schools.
- The alternate ending "What if..." and the song "Colorful - Falling in Love" are filled with clichés from Japanese school manga/anime.
- Ingram is the capital of the Militesi Empire where the empire's largest manufacturing plant is located. In the real world, Ingram is a firearms manufacturer based in the United States, which produces weapons.
- In the town of Mi-Go, Class Zero can do a task for an entertainment group called the Circus Solaris. This is likely a reference to the Cirque du Soleil, a Canadian entertainment company that performs throughout the world and is known for its fusion of circus styles and worldwide shows.