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We all of us bear a touch of darkness, just as surely as we bear light. Much as with the twin sets of Crystals. And the darkened underworld that rests beneath your planet's brighter surface. But as long as there is darkness, so will there always be light.

Dualism is one of the most common plot themes of the Final Fantasy series. This is often a theme of contrast between two drastically different elements. It also tends to involve the cycles of these two contrasted elements, cycles which the protagonists' goal is often to break.

Appearances Edit

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow. (Skip section)

Final Fantasy Edit

Garland created a time loop when made a pact to live forever by having the Fiends of Chaos summon him 2000 years in the past when he is defeated by the Light Warriors. There, Garland sends the Fiends of Chaos to the present, continuing the loop. When the Light Warriors travel back in time, they kill the Fiends and confront Garland, who transforms into Chaos and is defeated. This act ultimately breaks the time loop.

Final Fantasy II Edit

The Emperor's dark side goes to Hell when he is killed and takes it over, raising its capital, Pandaemonium, to Earth. As well, the Emperor's light side ascends to Heaven and enters Arubboth, Capital of Heaven. Firion and his allies kill the Dark Emperor, while Minwu and the spirits of other dead characters kill the Light Emperor, ensuring the Emperor is destroyed for good.

Final Fantasy III Edit

The setting features a world of light and a world of darkness. Each world also has a group of heroes arise to save their world from being consumed by the opposing property. When Xande drains the Crystals of their power, he creates an imbalance between light and darkness. This causes the Cloud of Darkness to appear to return the universe to a state of nothingness. The Warriors of Light attempt to stop her, but are defeated. Through the aid of the Warriors of the Dark, the Warriors of Light overcome and destroy her.

Final Fantasy IV Edit

The Blue Planet has two parallels: the Red Moon, and the Underworld. The surface world has four Crystals of Light, and the Underworld has four Crystals of Darkness. The Red Moon also has eight Crystals, four each of Light and Darkness. Cecil Harvey is a Dark Knight who becomes a Paladin by receiving the light-aligned power of his father Kluya. Golbez, Cecil's older brother, is aligned with darkness and uses powerful black magic to collect all eight Crystals in his quest for power. In the game's finale, Golbez uses a Crystal to attempt to subdue Zeromus, but fails as his heart is tainted with darkness. He thus passes the Crystal to Cecil, who uses his light to render Zeromus vulnerable and defeat him.

Final Fantasy V Edit

Planet R was split in two to contain the power of the Void. Each world has a set of four Crystals, which are key to maintaining the worlds. When the warlock Exdeath escapes from his sealing, he destroys the Crystals, forcing the two worlds back together and unleashing the Void. The two generations of the Warriors of Dawn and Light combine their powers to destroy Exdeath and recreate the Crystals.

Final Fantasy VI Edit

The War of the Magi 1000 years prior nearly destroyed the world. This conflict was caused by a war between espers and humans. In the present, the Gestahlian Empire is seeking espers to take over the world, but Terra Branford, a hybrid of an esper and a human, represents the hope that the two races could co-exist. Terra fights to defend the hopes of the orphans of Mobliz, who have given her life meaning. The antagonist Kefka Palazzo is an experimental Magitek Knight driven insane and power-hungry, who believes life is meaningless and that love and hope are illusions.

Final Fantasy VII Edit

Lifestream and Meteor ACC

The battling forces of the Meteor and Holy.

The typical conflict between light and darkness is replaced by a conflict between nature and humanity, and science and magic. Sephiroth, representing the power of science as a genetic experiment of the Shinra Electric Power Company, uses the Black Materia to summon Meteor to ravage the planet. Aeris Gainsborough, last of the magical Cetra, stands in opposition to Sephiroth, representing nature. She uses the White Materia to summon Holy which can stop Meteor.

The dualism between Aeris and Sephiroth is clarified in The Reunion Files, where Tetsuya Nomura states "as long as Sephiroth exists, Aerith must exist". The Lifestream also serves as a cycle, as all living things, even plants, have spirit energy that comes from the planet. When someone dies, their spirit energy returns to the planet and their knowledge joins the collective. The Shinra are draining this spirit energy to produce Mako, and spirit energy is also the basis for the creation of Materia.

Final Fantasy VIII Edit

Wal VIII 13

Seifer, Rinoa and Squall.

Squall Leonhart is opposed by his arch-rival Seifer Almasy. Squall wears a short black jacket and while Seifer's is long and white. The two use gunblades to battle, each having their own preferred model and fighting style, Seifer's being dark in color and Squall's being light. The both had the same love interest, and whereas Squall ends up leading the SeeDs in a battle against a sorceress, Seifer leads the G-Army to oppose him.

Likewise, the love interest of Squall, Rinoa Heartilly, is contrasted with the main antagonist, Ultimecia. Both are extremely powerful sorceresses; one easy-going and innocent while the other is cruel and heartless. Rinoa is symbolized as an angel with many references to angels ranging from her dog, Angelo, to the pattern of white wings on the back of her duster. Ultimecia on the other hand sports black wings and even has her own Griever, an evil leonine being, on her side. Her hairstyle gives her the appearance of having the devil's horns contrasting with Rinoa's angel imagery. Rinoa is characterized by the blue of her duster, the black of her hair and the rest of her clothing, and the white of her angel wings. Ultimecia's color scheme is the opposite: she has a red dress, white hair and black wings.

Final Fantasy IX Edit

Memoria twin moons

The merge of Gaia and Terra.

There are two worlds: Gaia and Terra. The Terran world was destroyed millennia ago so its people attempted to assimilate Gaia by sealing themselves in sleep and gradually replacing the souls of Gaia with those of Terra's. To assist them, the villain Kuja was created as an "Angel of Death" to incite death and war on Gaia and speed up the process. Later, a second Angel, Zidane Tribal, was created, the main protagonist.

The contrast between Terra, the dying world seeking to rejuvenate, and Gaia, the living world that is slowly dying due to losing its souls, is shown with the colors red and blue. Terra is the red world, its crystal shining red, which also gives the color to Gaia's second moon, the one originating from Terra. Thousands of years ago, when Terra attempted to absorb Gaia's crystal, the Fusion process failed and Terra shifted to the inside of the planet of Gaia its moon moving onto Gaia's orbit giving the planet two moons: the blue moon of Gaia and the red moon of Terra. The Final Fantasy IX Ultimania mentions that when the moons' orbs overlap and the blue moon of Gaia eclipses the red moon of Terra, the red moon is hidden from view entirely due to its dimmed glow from Terra's weak crystal. When the red moon eclipses the blue it gains a blue aura.[1] This may symbolize Gaia having dominated the attempted merge of the two worlds, hiding Terra from view.

In Crystal World, the crystal from which all worlds are born from is surrounded by two streams of light: one blue, one red. At the end of the ending credits the two moons appear to merge and become one, seemingly transforming into the crystal that is the logo for Final Fantasy IXFfixLogo.

Final Fantasy X Edit

The monster Sin was created by Yu Yevon to destroy any machina-based settlement that grew too large. A summoner is able to hold off this destruction by summoning the Final Aeon to destroy Sin. When this happens, the spirit of Yu Yevon within Sin possess that aeon, transforming it into a new Sin and continuing an endless cycle. When Summoner Yuna and her guardians kill Yu Yevon, she ends the cycle and destroys Sin for good. However, in the process, the world that had been dreamed up by the fayth is also destroyed, causing Tidus to disappear.

The corporeal world and the spirit world are thus juxtaposed. The spirit world is represented by Tidus's Zanarkand and the Farplane, as well as the fayth and the aeons, the unsent, and even some fiends. The corporeal world of Spira is where mankind makes its living. Multiple characters breach the gap between the two; namely, the ones who become unsent, and Tidus who is a dream of the fayth yet finds his way to Spira.

FFX-TidusYuna artwork

Artwork of Yuna and Tidus is a yin and yang juxtaposition.

Yuna's and Tidus's characters may allude to the Chinese concept of the yin and yang. In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang are concepts used to describe how apparently opposite or contrary forces are actually complementary, interconnected, and interdependent, giving rise to each other as they interrelate. Many tangible dualities (such as light and dark, fire and water, and male and female) are thought of as physical manifestations of the duality of yin and yang.

Yin is the negative/passive/female principle in nature, and may allude to many other concepts e.g. the moon, shaded orientation, something covert or concealed, "of the netherworld", overcast or sinister. Yang is the positive/active/male principle in nature, and may allude to many other concepts e.g. the sun, open, overt, and "belonging to this world". This could be represented by Yuna's readiness to die to complete the Final Summoning, and thus others treating her thusly. Tidus on the other hand is full of life and wants to find a way to save Yuna, though in the end he is the one to fade away. The sun and the moon themes are represented in the couple's names and the crests needed to empower their Celestial Weapons.

Yuna and Seymour Guado also parallel one another. Both are biracial and have a parent who sacrifices themselves to defeat Sin. Whereas Yuna's biracial heritage is not readily apparent and she is accepted into society, growing up in a loving and supportive environment, Seymour grows up in a hostile environment and adopts a negative view of life, becoming nihilistic. Both become summoners, but whereas Yuna's goal is to defeat Sin for good to end Spira's suffering, Seymour seeks the same goal by trying to become Sin himself and destroy Spira. Both Yuna and Seymour display aspects of Jesus Christ: Yuna is willing to die to defeat Sin, and in one scene she walks on water when performing the sending, a ritual that "saves the souls of the dead" by sending them to the Farplane; when Seymour is killed he assumes the pose Jesus is often depicted on the cross, and soon "rises from the dead" by becoming an unsent.

Final Fantasy X-2 Edit

The concept of dualism is present in the form of Yuna and Shuyin: Yuna is a human seeking for her lost lover while also being a witness of new Spira rising, Shuyin is an unsent wishing to destroy Spira as his grief and anger to avenge his lover's death.

Final Fantasy XI Edit

The enlightened races—those races believed to have been created by Altana, the Dawn Goddess, a good deity—face off against the hordes of beastmen—races created by Promathia, the Twilight God, who is twisted and evil—on Vana'diel.

Final Fantasy XII Edit

The conflict between despotism and self-management is represented in two aspects: the main characters witness the rise of the Archadian Empire and its conquering of the Kingdom of Dalmasca, and sequentially ally themselves with the Resistance force against Archadia.

The main antagonists' also seek to free mankind from the divine control of the undying Occuria—who intervene in its history—and give mankind their own means, which are comparable to the gods', to craft its future. Archadia acts as social commentary on democracy and gives the Occurian rule some credibility as demonstrated through the constant power struggles. Vayne has arguably noble intentions of wishing for humanity's future to be governed by man, but in his actions, he is replacing one dictator with another. Vayne loses sight of his original goals in his madness, shown by disregarding his younger brother's counsel and fighting him. In the end both the Occuria's and Vayne's oppressive means of autocracy are ended by the heroes, implying a new dawn free from dictatorship is at hand.

Final Fantasy XIII Edit

The two lands of floating Cocoon and the lowerlands of Gran Pulse, two separate worlds that both view the other as corrupt or evil plays on the dualist theme. Additionally the roles of fal'Cie and humanity on each world is also reversed in that on Cocoon, humanity relies upon the fal'Cie for survival, while on Pulse the fal'Cie are almost indifferent.

Final Fantasy XIII-2 Edit

During the events of the sequel, there are still two worlds, but with a different dualism approach: the passage of time. While Gran Pulse and Cocoon are in constant movement with time paradox appearing within their timelines, Valhalla is a place where past, present, and future intersect, meaning that time doesn't flow "as it should" there. Another, plainer example of dualism are the characters Lightning and Caius, whose goals are complete opposites: Lightning wants to save the goddess Etro and protect the world, while Caius wants to kill Etro and trigger the apocalypse.

Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII Edit

The two worlds of the previous games have been mixed together into the world of Nova Chrysalia, which itself is violently divided: two of its four landmasses are populated cities, while the other two are wild, untamed and mostly uninhabited. The continents themselves are also opposites of each other; while Luxerion is a religious capital of prayer and Yusnaan is a pleasure city where the inhabitants enjoy their days to the full, while the Dead Dunes are comprised of rolling dunes and ruins and the Wildlands are covered in forests and vegetation. The color themes of black and white are apparent throughout the artistic style of Nova Chrysalia, representing Lightning and Bhunivelze respectively.

Final Fantasy XIV Edit

The world of Hydaelyn has constantly undergone periods of abundance, known as Astral Eras, followed by catastrophes that bring scarcity and can destroy entire civilizations. These are known as the Umbral Eras. Currently, Hydaelyn is approaching its Seventh Umbral Era.

Final Fantasy XV Edit

The world, according to one of the characters seen in the E3 2013 trailer, is going into a state of extreme change after a long period of stability, hinting at some kind of cycle.[2] There is also a strong contrast between the modern elements of the world and magical elements, such as Crystals and Astrals, and the modern nation of Lucis and the "fantasy kingdom" of Tenebrae. There is a similar clash between the magic-driven culture of Lucis and the technical society of Niflheim.

Playing on the dualism theme, Noctis Lucis Caelum and Lunafreya Nox Fleuret (dressed in black and white respectively), hail from the opposing kingdoms of Lucis ("Light") and Tenebrae ("Darkness"). Luna, whose name mean "moon" in Latin, is an Oracle who keeps the darkness at bay with her powers, stopping the world from being swallowed in an eternal night, similar to how the moon offers a point of illumination in an otherwise dark night. Noctis's name on the other hand is the genitive singular form of the Latin word nox meaning "night".

The darkness and light theme appears to extend to the concepts of life and death. Lucis is a barren kingdom, whereas Tenebrae is covered in lush nature. Lucis's emblem is a winged skullLucis-Emblem, and the nation was said to openly worship figures of death in the old concepts when the game was known as Final Fantasy Versus XIII: this concept remained though its overt expression was reduced.[3] Luna uses her special powers to extend the life of the world by keeping the "Plague of the Stars" at bay, but Noctis's special power, granted through a near-death experience, is to see the light of the expiring souls that appear as glimmering lights.

Spoilers end here.

Etymology Edit

Dualism (from the Latin word duo meaning "two") refers to the state of two parts.

References Edit

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